Nowadays, cult and sectarian violence have been happening in the Islam World, from Syria to Pakistan. While most generally Sunni – Shia conflicts have been continuing, in addition to this, cult’s conflicts have been appearing in some areas where Sunni sectarian is very strong. One the other hand it is engrossing that there have not been any conflicts among Shiite groups for years.
Sunni-Shiite division was based faith separation more than political differences in the early years of Islam. So far, nothing has changed much in this regard. The Islamic geography, from Morocco to Iran, as well as Turkish states in Central Asia were very rich in oil and energy resources. Also, there were Muslim countries such as Afghanistan and Pakistan on the way of transportation of Central Asian oil to the warm waters. For all these reasons, the entire Muslim world has become the strategic objective of imperialist countries.
As we all know, the Muslim world was under colonization and occupation of imperialist countries until the beginning of the 1900s. With Turkish War of Independence led by Ataturk following the First World War, the majority of the Islamic countries regained their independence up to the Second World War. After 1950s, the U.S. and NATO took the place of the imperialist countries of Europa. The Green Belt project which was formed against the Soviet Union did not have any aim other than dominating oil and energy sources.
In the years when Islamic nations did not know each other, the United States could be allies both Iran whose population Shiite 90% and Saudi Arabia whose population Sunni 85%. In the years between 1950 and 1980, the prevalence of left ideas among Shiite origins and of right ideas among Sunni origins in countries like Turkiye was political rather than religious. But, the invasion of Afghanistan by the Soviet Union and the coming to power of Khomeini in Iran have caused to come to light Sunni and Shiite division and conflict as religious.
On one hand the U.S. and NATO got flurried of losing the Middle East, on the other hand, Kings of Saudi Arabia and the Gulf countries which had Shiite population were caught in the fear of losing of their thrones. A large Sunni mobilization has begun against both Iran and the Shia and Soviets in Afghanistan. Sunni groups were supported in the Islam world and hundreds Islamist groups emerged following the 1980s. Afghan Mujahideen which have been supported by the U.S., the Western and the Gulf countries mopped up the Soviet Union and triggered the disintegration of the empire.
After the break of the Soviet Union, NeoCons which have dreamed of the domination of the world and Zionist leaders which have planned to strengthen Israel have produced projects one after another. Especially, with cooperation agreements of the United States and Israel, led by Ariel Sharon, Radical Sunni and Shia organizations were accepted as new enemies. Thereupon, many Radical Islamist organizations which previously were working with the United States entered into the control of Russia. Two major Afghan Mujahideen organizations such as Jemaah Al Islamiyah and Hizb Al Islamiyah opposed to the United States. Also after a period, the Taliban movement which was established by CIA against them in Pakistan has become the biggest enemy of NATO. Meanwhile, the logistic support unit of the Afghan Mujahideen, led by Osama Bin Laden has become a radical Sunni organization with the name of Al-Qaeda.
After the September 11 attacks, the intervention of Afghanistan was made by controlling the energy resources of Central Asia putting forward Al Qaeda. Likewise Iraq which had fought for the good of the United States and the Western for eight years was occupied for settling into the center of the oils of the Middle East with sorry excuses. The united states’ occupation of Iraq and Afghanistan has failed. After that The great imperialist powers began to look for groups that would fight for them instead of fighting with their armies.
While the United States has been aiming to work with moderate Sunni Islamist groups, Russia has established relationships with radical Shiite and Sunni groups in secret. Generally, in a sense, the United States has become the protector of Sunni Islamic world and Russia has become the protector of Shiite Islamic countries. Therefore Sunni and Shiite conflicts have been accelerated in Islam world especially after 2000s.
In our day, Shia Muslims in Islamic countries has become an important weapon of Russia against the United States. The percentage of Shia to Muslims is about 5% in Saudi Arabia and Qatar, 15% in Afghanistan, Syria and United Arab Emirates, 20% in Pakistan, 30% in Kuwait, 45% Yemen, %60 in Iraq, % 65 in Lebanon and Bahrain, 75% in Azerbaijan, %90 in Iran. Sunni-Shiite conflicts have been going on in almost all of these countries due to the cold war between the United States and Russia.
For the very reason, the Greater Middle East Project which aims to be the judge of Petroleum and the Middle East was launched with great hopes as Sunni domination project. After all, the Muslim Brotherhood which was expected of close cooperation with Israel –such as Anwar Sadat- has led to a new and greater hostility. Accordingly, even the pro-Western groups began to be hostile to the United States and the West. The United States that both has lost old friends and cannot get the desired results from his new allies gave up the Greater Middle East Project since the beginning of the year 2012.
In the past few years, while the strength of the United States has been disappearing rapidly, Russia’s political influence has strengthened definitively in Pakistan, Afghanistan, Iran, Iraq and Syria. Following the defeat of Iraq and Afghanistan, There has not been the courage of fighting of the United States in another region. For this reason, the United States has paved the way for reconciliation and negotiations due to both to cover its failure in Syria and to prevent Iran from getting nuclear weapons. The United States has not only severed his ties with the Muslim Brotherhood, but also it has aimed to uncover and to purge these groups with the influence of Israel. Meanwhile, the majority of Sunni groups which have come to power in Islam world moved away from the Islamic values after the wealth and prosperity. The luxury and authorities, bribery, corruption, partisanship and interest fraternity took the place of Islamic brotherhood.
Sunni Islamist armed groups have classified according to the United States interests into two classes. The Armed groups who fight for the United States interests defined as Freedom Fighters and the others who fights against the United States as pro-Al Qaeda. Essentially, there have not been a political union among the groups which has identified as Al Qaeda in the world. The struggle of the organizations called Al Qaeda has been looking after Russia’s own benefits in Iraq, the Saudi Arabia’s benefits in Syria and the United States’ benefits in the Caucasus.
In short, on the basis of the Sunni – Shiite conflicts in the Islamic world there had not been a religious difference. Those who determine the parties and concepts were the imperialist countries according to international and regional interests in the world. On the contrary, none of them could not exactly reach their political goals. In the meantime, hundreds of thousands of Sunni and Shiite Muslims have killed each other and have been continuing to kill even though they believe in the same Quran.